Visit Website Did you know? Four decades after Constantine made Christianity Rome's official religion, Emperor Julian—known as the Apostate—tried to revive the pagan cults and temples of the past, but the process was reversed after his death, and Julian was the last pagan emperor of Rome. The magistrates, though elected by the people, were drawn largely from the Senate, which was dominated by the patricians, or the descendants of the original senators from the time of Romulus. Politics in the early republic was marked by the long struggle between patricians and plebeians the common peoplewho eventually attained some political power through years of concessions from patricians, including their own political bodies, the tribunes, which could initiate or veto legislation.
During this era, several Ecumenical Councils were convened. First Council of Nicaea First Council of Constantinople Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon These were mostly concerned with Christological disputes and represent an attempt to reach an orthodox consensus and to establish a unified Christian theology.
However, not all sees accepted all the councils, for example Nestorianism and the Assyrian Church of the East split over the Council of Ephesus ofOriental Orthodoxy split over the Council of Chalcedon of Council of Nicaea [ edit ] Main article: First Council of Nicaea Emperor Constantine convened this council to settle a controversial issue, the relation between Jesus Christ and God the Father.
The Emperor wanted to establish universal agreement on it. Representatives came from across the Empire, subsidized by the Emperor.
Previous to this council, the bishops would hold local councils, such as the Council of Jerusalembut there had been no universal, or ecumenical, council. The council drew up a creed, the original Nicene Creedwhich received nearly unanimous support. The council also addressed the issue of dating Easter see Quartodecimanism and Easter controversyrecognised the right of the see of Alexandria to jurisdiction outside of its own province by analogy with the jurisdiction exercised by Rome and the prerogatives of the churches in Antioch and the other provinces  and approved the custom by which Jerusalem was honoured, but without the metropolitan dignity.
Even when Arius died inone year before the death of Constantine, the controversy continued, with various separate groups espousing Arian sympathies in one way or another.
Commissioned in the 4th centuryit ranks as the first church built in Constantinopleand has its original atrium. In the First Council of Constantinople took place in the church.
Damaged by an earthquake in the 8th centuryits present form largely dates from repairs made at that time. The form used by the Armenian Apostolic Churchwhich is part of Oriental Orthodoxyhas many more additions.
Council of Chalcedon [ edit ] Main article: Council of Chalcedon The council repudiated the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitismdescribed and delineated the " Hypostatic Union " and two natures of Christhuman and divine; adopted the Chalcedonian Creed.
For those who accept it, it is the Fourth Ecumenical Council calling the previous council, which was rejected by this council, the " Robber Synod " or " Robber Council ". Biblical canon Christian The Biblical canon—is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and thus constituting the Christian Bible-- developed over time.
While there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the major writings were accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the 2nd century.
Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation.
For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon listsand that Codex VaticanusSinaiticus and Alexandrinus are examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshittathese are the earliest extant Christian Bibles. Augustinewho regarded the canon as already closed.
When these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, however, they were not defining something new, but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church.
The bishops, who were located in major urban centers by pre-legalisation tradition, thus oversaw each diocese. Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria.
The prestige of these sees depended in part on their apostolic founders, from whom the bishops were therefore the spiritual successors, e. Mark as founder of the See of Alexandria, St. Peter of the See of Rome, etc. There were other significant elements: Rome was where SS.
Peter and Paul had been martyred killedConstantinople was the "New Rome" where Constantine had moved his capital c.
The Pentarchy[ edit ] By the 5th century, the ecclesiastical had evolved a hierarchical " pentarchy " or system of five sees patriarchateswith a settled order of precedence, had been established. Rome, as the ancient capital and once largest city of the empire, was understandably given certain primacy within the pentarchy into which Christendom was now divided; though it was and still held that the patriarch of Rome was the first among equals.Once a small, Messianic Jewish sect, by the 4th century, CE, Christianity dominated all other religions in Greco-Roman society and spread throughout the Roman Empire even as far north as ancient Britain and possibly as far east as India.
Unlike other Gnostic movements of the era, the Christian message was meant to be openly and honestly shared to anyone who would hear it - regardless of race, gender, . The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity spread to all of Europe in the Middle Ages. History of Christianity -- With this cultural and religious backdrop, the ministry of Jesus began. Jesus was a Jew. He observed the Jewish faith . Gnostic Christianity: Gnosticism is a philosophical and religious movement with roots in pre-Christian times.
Gnostics combined elements taken from Asian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek and Syrian pagan religions, from astrology, and from Judaism and Christianity. Apr 19, · The history of Jewish Christianity is a very tragic one.
During the first few years of its existence, it enjoyed an enormous growth in numbers, both in Jerusalem and in the rest of Judaea and Samaria. The early Jewish Christians of the Jerusalem Church were respected both by their countrymen and by the Gentiles of the churches founded by Paul in Asia Minor, Cyprus and Greece.
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