The Fascists came to associate the term with the ancient Roman fasces or fascio littorio  —a bundle of rods tied around an axe,  an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrate  carried by his lictorswhich could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command.
This is the only complete official translation we know of on the web, copied directly from an official Fascist government publication ofFascism Doctrine and Institutions, by Benito Mussolini. This translation includes all the footnotes from the original. Subtitles in article have been put in by us to make the article more readable.
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Like all sound political conceptions, Fascism is action and it is thought; action in which doctrine is immanent, and doctrine arising from a given system of historical forces in which it is inserted, and working on them from within 1.
It has therefore a form correlated to contingencies of time and space; but it has also an ideal content which makes it an expression of truth in the higher region of the history of thought 2.
There is no way of exercising a spiritual influence in the world as a human will dominating the will of others, unless one has a conception both of the transient and the specific reality on which that action is to be exercised, and of the permanent and universal reality in which the transient dwells and has its being.
To know men one must know man; and to know man one must be acquainted with reality and its laws. There can be no conception of the State which is not fundamentally a conception of life: A spiritual attitude 3. Fascism sees in the world not only those superficial, material aspects in which man appears as an individual, standing by himself, self-centered, subject to natural law, which instinctively urges him toward a life of selfish momentary pleasure; it sees not only the individual but the nation and the country; individuals and generations bound together by a moral law, with common traditions and a mission which suppressing the instinct for life closed in a brief circle of pleasure, builds up a higher life, founded on duty, a life free from the limitations of time and space, in which the individual, by self-sacrifice, the renunciation of self-interest, by death itself, can achieve that purely spiritual existence in which his value as a man consists.
The conception is therefore a spiritual one, arising from the general reaction of the century against the materialistic positivism of the XIXth century.
Anti-positivistic but positive; neither skeptical nor agnostic; neither pessimistic nor supinely optimistic as are, generally speaking, the doctrines all negative which place the center of life outside man; whereas, by the exercise of his free will, man can and must create his own world.
Fascism wants man to be active and to engage in action with all his energies; it wants him to be manfully aware of the difficulties besetting him and ready to face them. It conceives of life as a struggle in which it behooves a man to win for himself a really worthy place, first of all by fitting himself physically, morally, intellectually to become the implement required for winning it.
As for the individual, so for the nation, and so for mankind 4. Hence the high value of culture in all its forms artistic, religious, scientific 5 and the outstanding importance of education.
Hence also the essential value of work, by which man subjugates nature and creates the human world economic, political, ethical, and intellectual.
This positive conception of life is obviously an ethical one. It invests the whole field of reality as well as the human activities which master it. No action is exempt from moral judgment; no activity can be despoiled of the value which a moral purpose confers on all things.
Therefore life, as conceived of by the Fascist, is serious, austere, and religious; all its manifestations are poised in a world sustained by moral forces and subject to spiritual responsibilities.Benito Mussolini was an Italian political leader who became the fascist dictator of Italy from to Originally a revolutionary socialist, he forged the paramilitary fascist movement in.
A political movement that promotes an extreme form nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a doctoral one-party rule. Benito Mussolini Fascist leader of Italy, led the black shirts to march on Rome where he was established as dictator.
Mussolini gained stature with Wall Street and Western interests through the pact; but fusing his visions of glory into an alliance with Hitler put Italy on a disastrous path to war. Pius was.
Benito Mussolini takes advantage of the situation. He speaks out against the government and attracts a lot of attention. He united them through nationalism and their hate of communists/5(1).
Didn't the rift deepen during WWI when Benito found out that he was actually extremely attracted to war and violence? maybe. as i far as i know he wanted italy to intervene moved by the strong demonization of germany (whom had done a lot of shitty stuff), and the socialist parties were mostly against intervention in the war.
thats when the rift. The Rise and Rule of Benito Mussolini. Topic 1. Benito Mussolini. Born in Son of a blacksmith Before WWI: professional revolutionary, left wing socialist, and radical journalist.
Early Years. School master by Arrested in for stirring up controversy in Switzerland.