Basic anatomy study guide

It was used again in in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: The first German use, Biologie, was in a translation of Linnaeus' work. The term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur —22 by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranuswho announced: The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology [Biologie] or the doctrine of life [Lebenslehre].

Basic anatomy study guide

This tube is organized into a series of four distinct layers which are fairly consistent throughout its length.

Click on a link for more detail, or scroll down. Terms such as inside and outside are potentially confusing when used to describe tubular organs.

Most commonly, inside refers to the lumen of the organ, while outside refers to the portion farthest away from the lumen i. However, this usage is often inverted when referring to a mucosal epithelium, so that outside refers to the apical surface of the epithelium while inside refers to the basal, connective tissue side.

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Less ambiguous are the "proper" terms adluminal toward the lumen and abluminal away from the lumen. Unfortunately, these proper terms are so similar to one another in both spelling and pronunciation that they too are easily confused and therefore seldom used.

Proceeding from the inside i. Submucosa -- connective tissue supporting outside, deep to the mucosa. Muscularis externa -- muscular wall of the tract, surrounding outside, deep to the submucosa. The mucosa is the inner layer of any epithelially-lined hollow organ e.

The mucosa consists of the epithelium itself and also the supporting loose connective tissue, called lamina propriaimmediately beneath the epithelium. Deeper connective tissue which supports the mucosa is called the submucosa.

In the GI tract but not in other tubular organsthere is a thin layer of smooth muscle, the muscularis mucosaeat the boundary between mucosa and submucosa.

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The mucosa is the most highly differentiated layer of the GI tract. Tissue specialization and surface shape are correlated with functional differentiation along the tract. Oral cavity -- Epithelium is protective stratified squamous, partially keratinized on gums and hard palate and on filiform papillae of tonguenon-keratinized elsewhere.

Lamina propria is unspecialized. A muscularis mucosae is not present. Esophagus -- Epithelium is protective stratified squamous, non-keratinized. Muscularis mucosae consists of scattered bundles of longitudinal muscle fibers. Stomach -- The gastric mucosa is specialized for production of digestive acid and enzymes.

The mucosal surface of simple-columnar epithelium consists of mucus-secreting cells for protection against self-digestion. The bulk of this thick mucosa is occupied by acid-secreting cells and enzyme secreting cells which comprise closely-packed glands within the gastric mucosa.

Lamina propria is inconspicuous, filling the interstices between the tubular gastric glands. Muscularis mucosae is thin.

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Small intestine -- The intestinal mucosa is specialized for absorption of nutrients and is thereby delicate and vulnerable. The simple columnar epithelium consists of absorptive cells enterocytes with scattered goblet cells which secrete mucus for lubrication.Help for A & P Students.

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Interactive Study Guide. Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body. Often, you may be more interested in functions of the body.

Basic anatomy study guide

Functions include digestion, respiration, circulation, and reproduction. Introduction to Basic Human Anatomy is a distance learning product that is based on the Correspondence Subcourse MD of the U.

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