In Discourse on the MethodDescartes recalls, I entirely abandoned the study of letters. Resolving to seek no knowledge other than that of which could be found in myself or else in the great book of the world, I spent the rest of my youth traveling, visiting courts and armies, mixing with people of diverse temperaments and ranks, gathering various experiences, testing myself in the situations which fortune offered me, and at all times reflecting upon whatever came my way so as to derive some profit from it. Given his ambition to become a professional military officer, inDescartes joined, as a mercenarythe Protestant Dutch States Army in Breda under the command of Maurice of Nassau and undertook a formal study of military engineeringas established by Simon Stevin.
We have experience of only one W i. We have no experience of any Zs at all.
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There is, however, a vast difference between these effects. It follows that there is little or no basis for assuming that Z resembles something like Xs i.
Cleanthes responds to this set of objections with a counter-example that is meant to discredit these criticisms and doubts.
Suppose we heard an articulate voice coming from the clouds and the words uttered contain a message instructing us in a way that is worthy of a great, superior being.
It is not possible, Cleanthes argues, that we would hesitate for a moment to ascribe some design and purpose to this voice and conclude that it bears some resemblance to the intelligent source of a human voice D, 3.
According to Cleanthes, it is similarly perverse and unnatural to deny that the various parts of the body and the way in which they are suited to our environment e.
Does it have successive, distinct thoughts? Why should we not assume that God has other human features such as passions and sentiments, or physical features such as a mouth or eyes D, 3.
In all cases that we have experience of, human intelligence is embodied, so why not also assume that God has a body D, 6. What this plainly manifests is that the anthropomorphic conception of God, as defended by Cleanthes, reflects an egocentric outlook and delusions about the significance of human life in the universe.
Any experimental reasoning of the kind that the argument from design employs must ensure that the cause is proportioned to the effect. If we follow this principle, however, we are no longer in a position to assign several fundamental attributes to God.
We cannot, for example, attribute any thing infinite to God based on our observation and experience of finite effects.
Nor can we attribute unity to the original cause of the universe on the basis of any analogy to human artifacts such as houses; as they are often built by a number of people working together. Perhaps, therefore, there is more than one God involved in the creation of the universe? More importantly, we are in no position to attribute perfection to God unless we observe perfection in his creation.
You find certain phenomena in nature. You seek a cause or author. You imagine that you have found him. You afterwards become so enamored of this offspring of your brain, that you imagine it impossible, but he must produce something greater and more perfect than the present scene of things, which is so full of ill and disorder.
You forget, that this superlative intelligence and benevolence are entirely imaginary, or, at least, without any foundation in reason; and that you have no ground to ascribe to him any qualities, but what you see he has actually exerted and displayed in his productions.
What we cannot do, Hume argues, is explain away all evidence of this kind by way of assuming that this world is the perfect creation of a perfect being.
It is this assumption that needs to be established, so we must not assume it in our reasoning.
Plainly, however, it is neither. It follows from this that many other hypotheses and conjectures, consistent with the evidence presented, may be considered as no less plausible.
Philo puts this point to Cleanthes: In a word, Cleanthes, a man who follows your hypothesis is able, perhaps, to assert, or conjecture, that the universe, sometime, arose from something like design:“I think, therefore I am” is a famous quotation that attempts to define this study very simply, and the philosopher quoted was Rene Descartes, a 17th century Frenchman who is widely regarded as the Father of Modern Philosophy.
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René Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine (now Descartes, Indre-et-Loire), France, on 31 March His mother, Jeanne Brochard, died soon after giving birth to him, and so he was not expected to survive.
Descartes' father, Joachim, was a member of the Parlement of Brittany at Rennes. René lived with his grandmother and with his pfmlures.com: 11 February (aged 53), Stockholm, Swedish Empire.
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