All heat moved from hot procedure sources into cold procedure sinks represent the scope for energy integration. Energy preservation is vital in procedure design.
Verbal justifications[ edit ] Clausius then points out the inherent difficulty in the mental comprehension of this law by stating: Again, the state of aggregation of bodies is altered by heat, solid bodies rendered liquid, and both solid and liquid bodies being rendered aeriform: Since, even which a body remains in the same state of aggregationits molecules do not retain fixed in varying position, but are constantly in a state of more of less extended motion, we may, when speaking of the arrangement of the molecules at any particular time, understand either the arrangement which would result from the molecules being fixed in the actual position they occupy at the instant in question, or we may suppose such an arrangement that each molecule occupies its mean position.
Now the effect of heat always tends to loosen the connection between the molecules, and so to increase their mean distances from one another. In order to be able to represent this mathematically, we will express the degree in which the molecules of a body are separated from each other, by introducing a new magnitude, which we will call the disgregation of the body, and by help of which we can define the effect of heat as simply tending to increase the disgregation.
The way in which a definite measure of this magnitude can be arrived at will appear from the sequel.
If we take, for example, the melting of ice, there is no doubt that interior forces, exerted by the molecules upon each other, are overcome, and accordingly increase of disgregation takes place; nevertheless the centers of gravity of the molecules are on the average not so far removed from each other in the liquid water as they were in the ice, for the water is the denser of the two.
In the case of the interior forces, it would accordingly be difficult—even if we did not want to measure them, but only to represent them mathematically—to find a fitting expression for them which would admit of a simple determination of the magnitude.
This difficulty, however, disappears if we take into calculation, not the forces themselves, but the mechanical work which, in any change of arrangement, is required to overcome them. The expressions for the quantities of work are simpler than those for the corresponding forces; for the quantities of work can be all expressed, without further secondary statements, by the numbers which, having reference to the same unit, can be added together, or subtracted from one another, however various the forces may be to which they refer.
It is therefore convenient to alter the form of the above law by introducing, instead of the forces themselves, the work done in overcoming them. In this form it reads as follows: John Tyndall, London,p.• A heat exchanger network obtained using the pinch design method is a network where no heat is transferred from a hot stream whose temperature is above the pinch to a cold stream whose temperature is below the pinch.
IS PINCH TECHNOLGY CURRENT? • YES and NO. The use of process integration techniques for reactor design has seen rapid progress, but is still in its early stages.
Third, a new generation of software tools is expected. The emergence of commercial software for process integration is fundamental to its wider application in process design.
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In this heat integration tool, process streams are considered as nonisothermal heat sources (or sinks) or as isothermal heat sources (or sinks).
The heat loads of the streams are calculated directly from the total change of enthalpy from the simulation results, which implies constant heat capacity for the streams.